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In one condition, students simply studied the words once, without trying to recall them at all.
Research dating back a century has shown that retrieval contributes to learning (for a historical review, see Roediger & Karpicke, 2006a), but the past decade has seen a renewed, intense focus on exploring the benefits of retrieval for learning.Retrieval is assumed to be neutral for learning; retrieval is needed to assess what a person has learned, but retrieval processes themselves are not thought to produce learning.Recent advances in the science of learning and memory have challenged common assumptions about how learning happens.But what about the effects of repeated retrieval practice? Massed retrieval — repeating the translations three times immediately — produced no additional gain in learning. Retrieving essential material at the end of lectures improves performance on statistics exams.